Causes of Azoospermia

There are typically two main causes of azoospermia: a problem with sperm production or a problem with sperm transport. There are a variety of factors that may contribute to either of these causes.

Sperm Production Problems

Sometimes, azoospermia is the result of a dysfunction within the testes themselves, making it impossible for your body to produce enough viable sperm. In order to produce sperm, the proper cells need to be present in the testes and the proper hormones need to trigger sperm production.

Failed sperm production is often the result of:

  • Hormonal Abnormalities: Sometimes your body may not produce enough of certain hormones involved in the sperm-making process, causing azoospermia. Hormonal imbalances caused by anabolic steroid use or particular disorders, like Cushing’s Syndrome, can contribute to azoospermia.
  • Cryptorchidism: Cryptorchidism, or undescended testicles, is a condition in which your testes have not descended properly. It is generally corrected in childhood, however, if it isn’t corrected, your testicles will be unable to produce sperm properly.
  • Vascular Trauma: Trauma to the testes or to the blood vessels within the testes can also prevent your body from producing sperm. Varicocele causes veins in the testes to enlarge and become swollen. As a result, blood pools in the testes, impairing sperm production.

Sperm Transport Problems

In order for sperm to leave your body, it must be transported from your testes to your urethra. Sperm travels through a series of ducts inside of your reproductive system, until it eventually mixes with your ejaculate and exits your body. Sometimes, blockages can occur inside of these ducts preventing sperm from mixing with your ejaculate.

Sperm transport problems are often caused by:

  • Vasectomy: The vasectomy procedure introduces a cut or blockage into your vas deferens, preventing sperm from mixing with your ejaculate.
  • Congenital Absence of Vans Deferens: Some men are born without the vas deferens, which are tiny tubes that carry sperm to the urethra for ejaculation.
  • Infection: Certain infections, including STDS, can cause blockages in the epididymis or vas deferens, preventing sperm from mixing with your semen.

Treating Azoospermia

There are ways to treat azoospermia and possibly restore fertility in some men suffering from the condition.

These treatments include:

  • removing blockages in the duct system
  • using medications to restore hormonal balances

Sometimes, however, it is impossible to restore the flow of sperm into a man’s ejaculate. This does not necessarily mean that you will be unable to father a biological child, though. New methods of surgical sperm removal are now available, which can remove small quantities of sperm from the testes or around blockages.

Common methods include:

  • MESA (Micro Epididymal Sperm Aspiration), in which sperm is removed from the epididymis.
  • PESA (Percutaneous Sperm Aspiration), in which sperm is taken from directly from the epididymis.
  • TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction), in which a small tissue sample is taken from the testicles in order to retrieve viable sperm.



Table of Contents
1. No sperm? Check out azoospermia
2. Sperm production or transport?
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